People of Color Residing in Bloomington in 1913 and Earlier

Blog post by Randi Richardson

 

In 1913 Byron K. Armstrong, an individual of color and founder of the Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity, wrote a thesis titled “Colored Population of Bloomington.  It was written under the direction of Dr. U. G. Weatherly in compliance with the requirements of the Department of Economics and Sociology of Indiana University for the Bachelor of Arts degree.  The 56-page paper covers many aspects of the local Afro American race as well as racial relations in Bloomington at the time. The document is available online at https://books.google.com/books?id=wV4ilEnurVQC&pg=PT16&dq=colored+bloomington+ind&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjx57bEzMbgAhUn_IMKHQRtDtoQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=colored%20bloomington%20ind&f=false

Byron
Dr. Byron K. Armstrong

Based upon a review of the appendix, it appears that Armstrong either did some extensive surveys of people of color in the Bloomington community or had someone do the work for him.  Unfortunately, his thesis includes only a statistical analysis of the surveys.

A portion of Armstrong’s thesis, pages 19-20, provided information pertaining to the size the of Bloomington’s “negro” population.  However, the paper is not footnoted and, consequently, the reader must question how some of the information was obtained and its credibility.  A small portion of the paper has been transcribed below exactly how it was written:

The colored population was 25 in 1860.  Hence from this fact we may conclude that before this date there were no negroes in Bloomington.  This is due to the fact that the negro population of Bloomington is made up of ex-slaves.  In 1870 the population had jumped to 259.  This enormous rate of increase is due to the coming in of the freedmen.  From this time on the population has increased very slowly which proves that the source of the negro population of Bloomington was the southland.  The growth of the negro population 1860-1910 is as follows:

1860 – 25

1870 –259

1880 –345

1890 –408

1900 –428

1910 –438

From this table we can see that since the influx of the freedmen from the South has ceased, the population is now at a standstill.  Bloomington is like many other small towns in the North, the negro population is slowly decreasing.  The causes for settlement in such districts are no longer active.  The negro is no longer attracted to these districts as were the old slaves.  He is now rather attracted to the larger cities where there is more social utilities and economic advantages.

Comparing the white population with that of the colored population we see that there are 8,838 people in Bloomington.  Of these 438 are negroes, or about one twenty-second.  Increase of negroes and whites since 1900:

White                           Negroes

 

1900                6034                            428

1910                8400                            438

It is to be noticed that while the negro population has remained stationary that the whites have increased very fast.  First there has been no increase of the birth rate of negroes over the death rate.  Second, it is probable that some of the younger negroes have migrated to the larger cities.  Third, the economic and commercial activities of Bloomington have developed wonderfully and have reacted on the size of the white population by increasing it.

Two years prior to the completion of Byron’s thesis, in 1911, he founded the first chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi, a fraternity for young men of color, at Indiana University.

 

 

 

Bundy’s Nickelodeon

Blog post by Randi Richardson

Nickelodeon
Ticket booth for nickelodeon at an unknown location.

According to a column titled “Looking Back on Old Bloomington,” written by Seymour E. Francis and published in the Bloomington Telephone on March 24, 1930, p. 4, Bloomington’s first moving picture show, a nickelodeon, was established in 1906.  That was just one year after the opening day of the world’s first nickelodeon in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.

Arthur Bundy, whose family was living in Monroe County at the time, reportedly introduced the nickelodeon to a less than enthusiastic Bloomington crowd in a room located above the Monroe County Bank.  It is said that he advertised extensively in an effort to get people to risk a nickel to see what the movies were all about.  Some asked him what sort of a show he was operating.  Some thought it was a magic lantern affair like those of the stereopticons.  Others were more skeptical, they wondered if it would afford any entertainment at all.

Bundy returned to Bloomington in 1908 and opened the Family Park Theatre with seating for 500 on the corner of Fourth and Walnut streets.  The Family Park was the first open-air theatre in Bloomington.  A little later William Brissenden opened an airdome on Sixth Street seating 750 people.  Bigger yet was the open-air theatre opened by Nat Hill, Jr., Louie Howe and Jim Lefler/Leffler at the present site of the Monroe County Health Department.  That particular airdome had seating for 2,500.  Lida Robison Carmichael often improvised piano accompaniments to the silent movies.

Theatres today, more than a century later, are very different from the airdomes and theatres of the past.  And given the many different types of electronic devices a on which movies can now be viewed, it seems likely that the existing theatres will need to change or eventually fade into the past.

For more information about the early history of Bloomington theatres and the use of nickelodeons, check out the oral interview conducted with Robert Leffler in 1998.  Or read about the management of the Bloomington airdome in 1909.  And some of the movies scheduled to be shown in 1906 are mentioned at NewspaperArchive, a paid subscription website.

A BLOODY TRAGEDY IN ELLETTSVILLE

Blog post by Randi Richardson

Sometimes the line between “vigilante justice” and just downright meanness is quite thin and poorly defined.  Such is the 1854 case in which Harrison Spear, variously spelled Speer, was a victim and Hugh Butler, one of several perpetrators, died.  The assault was allegedly triggered by Spear’s immoral behavior.  Newspapers in various states carried the story which often differed in detail.  It is believed, but not proven, that the Harrison Spear in question was a resident of Indian Creek Twp., Lawrence County.

knifeOn April 15, 1854, the Bloomington Newsletter published information pertaining to a vicious assault on Harrison Spear of Ellettsville by Hugh Butler, Jacob Young and Jeff Raper who were all well into their cups at the time. Spear was described by the Newsletter as a “peaceable but unfortunately a poor man.” It was alleged that Spear was living with a woman of ill repute. The young men lobbed bricks and rocks toward Spear’s home. At one end of the house they exploded a keg of powder and sand putting the inhabitants in fear for their lives.

In the midst of the chaos, someone fired a gun.  Some accounts noted that it was Raper; in other accounts it was Spear. Regardless of who fired it, it struck Butler.  Butler’s companions took him to a physician who declared that the wound was not serious whereupon Butler and the others took up their pursuit of Spear.

Here, too, the story differs.  According to one, Spear quickly fled for his life with his assailants, joined by Hugh’s brother, Frederick, Jr., in hot pursuit.  They overtook him and were beating him terribly with rocks and, it is believed, an axe, when Spear managed to draw a bowie knife and stabbed Hugh in the right side killing him almost immediately.  According to another account, the ruffians managed to get the “old man” out of doors and had him on the ground beating him over the head with a stone when he drew a knife and stabbed Butler.

Whichever of the stories is accurate, covered with blood, both his own and that of Hugh, Spear escaped and fled to the home of his neighbor, Henry Shook who turned him away, perhaps fearing for his own safety.  Next Spear took refuge at some distance in Worley’s tavern.  He ran upstairs and fastened the door with the assailants close behind.  It was there that Worley found Spear covered with blood, still clutching the bloody knife and terrified almost to death.  He convinced Spear to give himself up with the assurance that he would not be hurt by his pursuers.

While Young and Raper made a hasty retreat, Spear was lodged in jail.  On Friday morning, the case was brought for trial before Jno. M. Sluss, a justice of the peace. Because Young and Rader, witnesses for the prosecution, had not yet been found, the trial was continued until the next Friday.  Paris Dunning was one of the lawyers appointed to prosecute Spears.

On May 6, 1854, the Bloomington Newsletter reported that “no bill” was found against Spear for killing Hugh Butler.  Thus ended Harrison Spear’s brief sojourn in Monroe County.

First Open Meeting of the Ku Klux Klan in Bloomington

Blog post by Randi Richardson

Not much has been written about the Ku Klux Klan in Monroe County.  So one must wonder if it was ever here at all.  A review of the Fiery Cross, a Klan newspaper published in Indianapolis, Indiana, sheds some light on the subject.  Copies are available online through NewspaperArchive, a subscription website. KKK

On August 17, 1921, the Bloomington Evening World noted that the Ku Klux Klan, described as a “fraternal and beneficial” organization, incorporated in Indiana on August 15.  In response, the Indiana Colored Masonic Convention adopted resolutions opposing the Klan and sent them to Gov. McCray with a request that he promote legislation in the next session of the general assembly that would curb the society in Indiana.

A year or so later, on February 23, 1923, The Fiery Cross published news of the first open meeting of the Ku Klux Klan in Bloomington on February 20.  Two masked horsemen in full regalia went up and down the streets around the square early in the day promoting the meeting.  That night 300 people or more, of various classes, assembled at the Carpenters and Joiners Union Hall to hear a speech given by  Rev. V. C. Blair.

Blair read from the Klan constitution which stated that members that must be white, male, gentile, above 18, native born, good Christian gentlemen and must owe allegiance to no foreign prince or potentate.  He then went on to defend the various sections of the constitution declaring that “the Klan is not against the negro but against social equality, against the Jews only who are trying to gain control of the world; also the Klan is against the idea that the Jews are chosen people.  The Klan is not against Catholics but opposed to their system which is against our idea of American ideals…It is time for the scum to be thrown from the melting pot and the Klan is here to stay, and the Invisible Empire will do the skimming.”

On May 11, 1923, the Fiery Cross reported that 2,000 people gathered on the courthouse square on May 7 to hear an “eloquent appeal” for the Klan that was received with much enthusiasm.  Apparently the Klan’s recruitment efforts met with some degree of success for a few months later, on October 15, an all-day gala in downtown Bloomington attracted a crowd of 10,000.

The Fiery Cross was not in the business of outing members.  Unless they were dead.  When George Sellars, a U. S. Marine and Bloomington native, was accidentally killed at Paris Island, South Carolina, in August 1923, his body was returned to Bloomington for burial.  After the funeral service, his body was carried under military escort to Rose Hill Cemetery where 74 Klansmen in full regalia carried a floral cross to the grave of their departed brother.  With head bared, the leader of the Klansmen led others in singing “Nearer My God to Thee” after which the procession filed silently by the grave and departed.

Joseph Stine of Ellettsville was another individual for whom the Klan provided last rites.  They accompanied his body to the Chambersville Cemetery in September 1923 and provided a floral tribute of red roses in the form of a fiery cross.

Indiana’s Klan organization reached its peak of power in the early 1920s with an estimated membership of 250,000, about 30 percent of the native-born, Indiana male population.  It was all but dismantled, however, in 1925 with the conviction of Grand Dragon D. C. Stephenson of Evansville for the rape and murder of a young school teacher.

By the end of the 1920s, the Indiana Klan was all but dismantled following the conviction of Grand Dragon D. C. Stephenson for the rape and murder of a young school teacher.

 

Early African Americans in Monroe County as Noted by Martha (Maxwell) Howard

Blog post by Randi Richardson

howard
A photo of Martha (Maxwell) Howard shared by Phil Schlee at FindaGrave.

On Reel 18 of the Local History Microfilm Collection at the Monroe County Public Library is a paper titled “An Early Sketch of Bloomington and the Family of David H. Maxwell” written by Martha (Maxwell) Howard, a resident of Terre Haute, Indiana, in July 1907.  According to that paper, Martha is the daughter of Dr. David H. Maxwell and his unnamed wife who is noted in other records as Mary (Dunn) Maxwell.   Martha died on April 27, 1909, at the age of 90.  The transcription, with punctuation added where needed, is eight pages in length.  The paragraphs noted below are excerpts from that paper.  The words in brackets have been added by me.

…[My mother] was fortunate in having for help a colored woman[, Maria,] whom she had brought from her Kentucky home.  But the laws of Indiana made Maria a free woman after she had been in the state a year and, although she remained with my mother several years, she finally decided to go south where she would be among colored people.  Then it was that my mother faced all the hardships of the situation.

It was a Herculean task for two hands to do all the work for a large family, cooking, sweeping, sewing, taking care of the baby and the little children, and a thousand other things that go to make up housekeeping.  Reared in a Southern state, she knew nothing of housework, other than sewing, until she was married.  She became an excellent cook, but when the time came that she had no help, and had for a time to do her own washing, this was the climax of her hardships.  Attempting it, every knuckle on her fingers would be skinned and bleeding, but she learned that there was a way to wash without the skinning process.

In the first settlement of the town there were two colored women by the same name, the one my mother brought from Kentucky, the other one having been brought from Maryland by Mr. Rawlins.  As one was large and the other small, one was always designated as “big Maria” and the other as “little Maria.”  Dr. Maxwell, my father, also brought with him from Kentucky a colored boy, almost grown, a slave in his father’s family, by the name of Richard Moor (sic).  These two colored people from Kentucky were the first of the race in Bloomington.

Dick, as they called the boy, was remarkably bright and smart, so much so that Dr. Maxwell taught him to read and write.  As he was an office boy, whenever he could get any of my father’s writing he would copy and recopy it until it was such a perfect imitation it took the closest scrutiny to tell the copy from the original writing.  After he became a man, he corresponded with several of the noted abolitionists of that day—William Loid Garrison, Thadeus Stevenson and Wendal [sic] Phillips…

The first barber in the town was a colored man by the name of  Notly Baker.  He was owned in Kentucky by Mr. Joshua Howe who brought him from Kentucky.  There were two other old colored persons who were early settlers.  “Old Andy” and his wife, “Aunt Jinney.”  Another old colored woman was “Aunt Hannah.”

 

DAVID STARR JORDAN AND THE HISTORY OF EUGENICS

Blog post by Randi Richardson

David Starr Jordan was the seventh president of Indiana University.  He was inaugurated on January 1, 1885, becoming the nation’s youngest university president at the age of 34 and the first president of Indiana University that was not an ordained minister.

starr
David Starr Jordan c. 1880.  Photo courtesy of IU Archives.

During the course of his six-year presidency he oversaw the university’s growth at the new campus in Dunn’s Woods, improved the university’s finances and public image, doubled the enrollment and increased the number of faculty.  Eventually Jordan Avenue, Jordan River, Jordan Field and Jordan Hall would be named in recognition of his many accomplishments.  What is lesser known is the role he played in the history of American eugenics.

Jordan, who graduated from Cornell University with a master’s degree in 1872, came to Indiana University in 1879 as a professor of zoology.  About that same time, Francis Galton was pioneering the principles of eugenics in England based, in part, upon the theories of his half cousin, Charles Darwin who published works about the survival of the fittest.  Not long afterward, Jordan became an advocate of eugenics.

Eugenics is a set of beliefs and practices that aim at improving the genetic quality of a population through selective breeding.  On the positive side, eugenics might include programs that encourage particularly “fit” individuals to reproduce.  On the negative side, eugenics has prompted marriage restrictions and forced sterilization of people deemed unfit for reproduction.  After becoming popular in the United States, eugenic programs also became popular in Germany where they evolved into a lethal solution under Hitler and the Nazi regime.

Although Jordan did not coin the term eugenics, he was among the first to call attention to it in the U. S. when he published The Blood of the Nation: A Study of the Decay of Races through the Survival of the Unfit in 1902.  By then he had become the founding president of Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, ranked as one of the world’s top universities, and an early leader of the U. S. eugenics movement.

In 1906, Jordan became chair of the eugenics section of the American Breeders Association, the first organization in the U. S. devoted entirely to eugenics.  A year later, in 1907, the first eugenics/sterilization law was passed in the U. S.  Hoosiers may be surprised to learn that it was in the state of Indiana and heavily influenced by Jordan’s authority.  That law was revised in 1927 and repealed in 1974 after more than 2,300 of the state’s most vulnerable citizens were involuntarily sterilized.

California became the third U. S. state to pass eugenics/sterilization legislation.  By 1921 that state accounted for nearly 80% of all forced sterilizations in the U. S. thanks in large measure to the prominence and organizational abilities of Jordan, who by then had been in California for more than two decades, and the resources of Ezra Gosney, an American philanthropist and eugenicist.

Gosney founded the Human Betterment Foundation (HBF) in 1928 in Pasadena, California, primarily to compile and distribute information about compulsory sterilization legislation in the U. S. for the purposes of eugenics.  Jordan, then chancellor of Stanford, was an initial member of the HBF’s board of trustees.  In 1935, the HBF took credit for inspiring the eugenics program in Germany.

Adolf Hitler was obsessive in his attempts to create a superior Aryan race through forced sterilization and ethnic cleansing.  From 1933-1945 the eugenics movement in Germany began the cleansing by deportation and ended with the horrific “final solution” and the elimination of some 6,000,000 Jews and other less desireables such as Gypsies and homosexuals in concentration camps and mass killing centers.

Once fairly mainstream, it was through the negative association with Hitler that the eugenics movement fell into disfavor during the second half of the twentieth century.  Support for eugenic theories plummeted.  Ultimately there were more than 65,000 forced sterilizations in 33 U. S. states.  The last forced sterilization in the U. S. was performed in Oregon in 1981.

starr4
Jordan Hall, 1962. Courtesy IU Archives.

Jordan died at his Palo Alto home in 1931.  In 1937 a new Palo Alto middle school was named in his honor.  In 2015, a student’s book report about Jordan’s influence on the eugenic movement sparked an interest in renaming the school; in 2018 the name was changed in favor of Frank Greene, Jr., an African-American memory chip inventor.

In June 1956 Jordan Hall at IU-Bloomington was formally dedicated.  It houses the biology department and was named for the university’s past president who was also a foremost ichthyologist.  In the fall of 2017 the walls of Ballantine Hall were plastered with notes urging IU to rename the building in light of the leadership role Jordan played in the eugenics movement.  This was during the same time that the renaming of the Wildermuth Intermural Center was under consideration because Ora Wildermuth, for whom the building named, was identified as a racist.

Although the matter or renaming Jordan Hall came up again for discussion in the late fall of 2018, no action was taken and interest among the students and faculty seems minimal.  Could it be that too few people know Jordan’s history?   Or is it that they don’t care?

 

 

Elizabeth Jane (Goss) Martin’s Quilts

Blog post by Randi Richardson

quilt
Polk’s Fancy quilt made by Elizabeth Jane Goss c. 1846.

In March 2019 two quilts by Elizabeth Jane (Goss) Martin, a native of North Carolina and the daughter of David and Mary (Kooter) Goss, were placed on display in the lobby of the Monroe County History Center.  One of the quilts, Polk’s Fancy, was donated to the History Center by Mary Lee Deckard, a family descendant.  Mary Lee also made available to the History Center on loan for this exhibit a second, smaller, quilt also completed by Elizabeth Jane.

Polk’s Fancy, a rare quilt design with an estimated 40 pieces per square, has Elizabeth’s initials, EJG, embroidered in a corner.  The design is believed to be a reference to James K. Polk, U. S. president from 1845 to 1849.  Polk spent some time with 2,800 Indiana volunteers in the summer of 1846 camped near Elizabeth’s home in Wood Twp., Clark County, Indiana, while enroute to join Gen. Zachary Taylor in the war with Mexico. Elizabeth would have been 12 that year.

Netty Goss, Elizabeth’s cousin and the daughter of George and Mary Goss, lived near Elizabeth.  She, too, liked to quilt and made one in the Polk’s Fancy design.  Her quilt has the date 1846 stitched in a corner.  In 1846, Netty would have been 26 and yet unmarried.    It seems likely the Netty, undoubtedly the more experienced quilter, helped Elizabeth with the piecework for her quilt.

On December 16, 1850, Elizabeth married Thomas Martin in Clark County, Indiana.  Ten years later, in 1860, the couple was residing with four of their children (Marietta, Washington, Laura E., and Lucinda) in the household of her father and two siblings in Bean Blossom Twp., Monroe County, Indiana.  Eventually two more children, Clara Bell and Eva would be born to Elizabeth and Thomas.

Thomas died on June 2, 1893, while living on S. Park St., in Bloomington.  Afterward Elizabeth moved to 803 S. Washington in Bloomington where she lived with two of her daughters and a son-in-law, Benjamin Morris, the husband of Eva.  She was still living at that address when she died on April 13, 1907.

Sources:

Teri Klassen, “Tracing the Genealogy of a Southern Indiana Quilt Pattern,” Indiana Genealogist, September 2007, Vol. 18, Issue 3, pp. 5-15, viewed online March 2019 at https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/20558/INGen%20PF.pdf;sequence=1.

Monroe County, IN, death record for Elizabeth J. Martin.

Federal Population Census Records:  1850, 1860, 1870, 1880 and 1900.

Abstract from Bloomington (IN) Republican Progress, June 14, 1893, viewed online at INMONROE Rootsweb Mailing Lists.

Elizabeth J. (Goss) Martin death record, Monroe County Department of Health, available online at Ancestry.